Secondly, I realized that a lot of mistakes were being made in official publications as a result of historical confusion. Case in point. The official timeline, in the Freedom City sourcebook, states that Anne Atom died of cancer on two separate occasions. Not that big a deal ... but then the Iron Age timeline repeats the latter date in its timeline, when (given that the earlier date is the one given in the Atom Family's section of the book) it seems likely that's the wrong one.
But that's a relatively minor incident compared to the fact that in the historical summary that opens up the Freedom City sourcebook, it's stated that Lucius Cabot was a prosecutor during the time of the Prophet's Crusade, which is how the story is also told, with more details, in Hero High and The Book of Magic. Except that his own information, later on in the book, states that he didn't become immortal until the mid 18th century, more than seventy years after the Prophet's Crusade. Fortunately, it's not that hard to fix -- if one simply assumes that Constance Vervain was Justina Vervain's daughter, rather than her grand-daughter.
I haven't included every date in the books, particularly not the foundation of certain "mundane" locations in Freedom City. I have included some speculation -- the fact that the original Lady Liberty was killed by Hessian mercenaries was too tempting to pass up, for example -- and a couple of jokes, to liven up what would otherwise be a pretty dry read.
If anyone spots anything that I missed, please PLEASE let me know. Unless otherwise indicated, all events are taken from the Freedom City Timeline on pp 17-21 of Freedom City, Second Edition, hereafter FC2e. Other sources used in the creation of this timeline are abbreviated as follows:
WoF=Worlds of Freedom
FoF=Foes of Freedom
AoF=Agents of Freedom
FCA=Freedom City Atlas: Pyramid Plaza
V&V=Iron Age Vigilantes & Villains
ToV=Time of Vengeance (no page numbers provided)
MMA2=Mutants and Masterminds Annual #2
Code: Select all
1630 * Landing of settlers at Great Bay, the future site of Freedom City. * Buccaneers claim Tortuga, off the northwest coast of Hispaniola, in the Caribbean. Tales of the Crimson Corsair will eventually spread as far north as Freedom. 1631 * Freedom officially founded with the building of its first common house and town hall. 1669 * Founding of Bayview. 1694 * "Prophet's Crusade", a witch hunt driven and directed by famous monster hunter and witch finder Reverend Elijah Prophet, begins in Freedom. Among the accused is Henri "Lupus" LeBlanc, alleged lycanthrope. 1696 * With the departure of Elijah Prophet from Freedom, the Prophet's Crusade comes to an end. 1698 * Founding of Port Regal 1719 * Founding of Kingston. 1745 * Founding of Hanover. 1766 * Law firm of Cabot, Cunningham and Crowley is established, with Lucius Cabot as one of its senior partners. (FC2e, p. 38) 1768 * Lucius Cabot persuades a witch to reveal her secrets to him, and makes a deal with a demon for wealth, power, success and the eternal youth with which to enjoy it. He then murders the witch, one Justina Vervain. (FC2e, p. 38; HH, p. 99) 1773 * "Kingston Tea Party" is held in Freedom; James Forester, harbormaster, is hung after being accused of complicity in the event. (WoF, p. 15) 1775 * The American Revolution begins with the battle of Lexington Green. 1776 * American and British troops report sightings of a mysterious woman dubbed Lady Liberty (secretly Elizabeth Forester, widow of James Forester). (WoF, p. 15) * Also active throughout the New England colonies is the original Minuteman (secretly Captain Isaiah Hawthorne of the Continental Army). (WoF, p. 16) * Jack Halloran betrays a group of American rebels to the British; repenting the act, he attempts to warn them but is killed. In death, he becomes the mysterious "Lantern Jack". (FC2e, p. 141) 1779 * Assassins sent by Lucius Cabot murder Constance Strype, nee Vervain (daughter of Justina Vervain) and thus free the Vengeance Spirit, which possesses Governor Terrance Strype, her husband. The possessed governor is defeated by Lady Liberty, the Minuteman and the French hero Bastille. (HH p. 100; date is conjecture, but described as leading to the next listed event.) * Major Joseph Clark wins decisive victories over the British, driving them from Freedom and the surrounding area. (He is assisted by Lady Liberty.) 1780 * Lady Liberty is killed in action by a group of Hessian mercentaries, including one famous for his extremities of violence. (He will subsequently have his head shot off by cannon fire, inspiring a well-known legend in the New York area. He will also later be reincarnated as William Kantor.) This ambush is believed to have been orchestrated by the notorious Viscountess. (Date is conjecture, but it is known to have taken place shortly before the end of the War of American Independence; events described FC2e p. 118, Overshadow's past life as Hessian mercenary captain mentioned AoF p. 72; the Viscountess' role in the incident mentioned WoF p. 17) 1789 * Incorporation of Freedom City. 1825 * Freedom City's first daily newspaper -- the Freedom Ledger -- begins publication. 1861 * American Civil War begins; the Patriot Regiment (Minuteman II, Columbia, Goliath, the Ironclad, Pathfinder, the Sharpshooter, and the Lion Man) and the Knights of the Confederacy (Achilles, the Southern Belle, the Fouke Monster, the Mermaid, the Night Stalker, Nunnehi, and the Ranger) are active on their respective sides. (WoF p. 17-24) 1865 * American Civil War ends; most of the super-soldiers of both sides are dead or missing, while the rest retire. (A notable exception is the Ironclad, who goes on to become one of the nation's first major super-villains, often opposed by a pair of Secret Service agents.) (WoF p. 17-24; Ironclad's eventual role specifically mentioned on p. 19) 1866 * The law firm of Cabot, Cunningham & Crowley moves its business from Freedom City to New York abruptly and without explanation. (FC2e p. 38) * Adam Prophet is ambushed and murdered near Magic Mesa, but is miraculously resurrected by shaman Broken Crow and begins operating as the Pale Ranger. (WoF p. 30) 1868 * Alejandro Rojas dies and rises again as the elemental guardian of Magic Mesa known as Dust Devil. (WoF p. 30) 1871 * Dr. Charles Claremont founds the Claremont Academy, a prestigious private school in the Bayview community. It promptly burns down, due to the presence of the Vengeance Spirit on the property. After the site is consecrated by Father Lee Vervain (descendant of Constance) the structure is rebuilt as St. Thomas Aquinas Academy. (FC2e p. 39; expanded history revealed HH p. 100) * Broken Crow becomes Master Mage after the death of Order of Light leader Abraham Hildebrant, a death orchestrated by Taurus. (WoF p. 30; Taurus' role revealed p. 31) 1873 * Steven Mullray (aka Pathfinder of the Patriot Regiment) commits suicide by leaping from the roof of his family home during a violent storm. (WoF p. 20) 1875 * The Sons of Merlin split from the Order of Light over philosophical differences in how to deal with Order's many enemies. 1880 * Freedom City celebrates its 250th anniversary with a gala parade and a month-long series of festivals. (WoF p. 30) * Acting through proxies (among them Mayor Henry Wading) and shell businesses, Taurus seizes control of much of Freedom City's nascent business community. (WoF p. 30; Wading's corruption revealed p. 31) 1883 * Garret Gaunt comes into possession of the cursed six-shooters "Hellfire and "Brimstone". (WoF p. 30) 1886 * Hunts-With-Claws-Unseen, a morlock of the far future, arrives at the ruined home of Dr. Ripley Warren after using the doctor's stolen time machine. (WoF p. 30) * Adam Prophet hangs up his mask and leaves the Pale Ranger identity behind him. (WoF p. 30) * After acclimating to his new time period, Hunts-With-Claws- Unseen takes the anme "Doctor Raub". (WoF p. 30) 1888 * Herbert Warren arrives in London, following Raub back from the future. (WoF p. 30) * A path of terror is carved through the Whitechapel area of London. Letters written under the name Jack the Ripper claim responsibility for the killings, but the killer is never caught. (He is, apparently, a Master Freemason possessed by the Murder Spirit.) (Utterly cliched secret of Ripper murders revealed FoF p. 73) 1889 * Herbert Warren recruits Adam Prophet to help him hunt Dr. Raub. Prophet later gains allies, among them Emily Swift, Garret Gaunt, Oberon Peake and Rostov. (WoF pp. 30, 34-35) 1890 * Jack-a-Knives terrorizes the red light districts of Freedom City. * The vampire lord Dracula terrorizes London. * Broken Crow dies at Wounded Knee. * Occult rituals enacted by the Brotherhood of the Yellow Sign on Star Island are thwarted by mages of the Order of Light. 1895 * The Shepherdstown Penitentiary, outside Freedom City, burns to the ground. The fire is attributed to arson, but no definite cuase is discovered. A number of inmates die during the blaze. (WoF p. 30) * Lady Violet Pennyworth, Broken Crow's successor as Master Mage, dies thwarting the efforts of Kar'Kradas, Whisperer in the Shadows Between Worlds, to enter Earth's dimension. (WoF p. 30) 1898 * The Sons of Merlin destroy the Harbinger of the Seven Eyes of Edraas, and then begin a self-destructive cycle of conflict with the Brotherhood of the Yellow Sign. (WoF p. 30) * Daedelus finally manages to collapse the elaborate shell companies used by Taurus in his eastern United States corporate dealings, resulting in the minotaur's control in Freedom City suffering serious damage. (WoF p. 30) * Emerson Wading winds by a landslide in his mayoral campaign, defeating his father and ushering in an era of reform. (WoF p. 30) 1900 * Thomas Osiris Prophet born to Adam and Emily Prophet. (WoF p. 30) * Tzin Sing is born in a remote farming region of China. (WoF p. 30) * The last of the Sons of Merlin is sacrificed to Hades by Taurus. (WoF p. 30) 1912 * The RMS Titanic sinks on her maiden voyage. Although conventional history and the biggest movie of all time attribute this to a collision with an iceberg, some later scholars suggest that the Atlanteans were responsible, although there has never been any evidence to support this theory. 1918 * Thule Society founded in Europe; they summon a trio of three ancient magicians -- Count Varney Orloff, the Winter King, and the Crimson Mask -- to do their bidding. (AoF p. 78) * [Hypothesis: On Erde, instead of (or possibly in addition to) summoning these beings, the Thule Society casts a spell diverting time and dimensional travelers away from their world, resulting in the version of the Centurion who was supposed to arrive there going elsewhere entirely, and later sending Dr. Tomorrow to the history of Earth-Prime rather than Erde. (Barriers are mentioned WoF p. 64)] * The Centurion's life pod enters Earth's dimension and lands west of Freedom City. He is discovered by Tom and Mabel Leeds, and raised as their son, Mark. (FC2e p. 22) 1925 * Police reports and newspapers attribute disrupted gangland activities to a mysterious crime-fighter called the Ghost. 1927 * Jungle adventurer Johnny Danger delivers "Six Fingers" Scocci to the police and breaks up the Tomo mob. * The Bluesman fights mob influence in Freedom City's West End. 1928 * Aurora Press produces pulp adventures of Johnny Danger, the Ghost, Bluesman and others. 1931 * Dr. Thomas Osiris Prophet fights crime as Doc Prophet, the man of marble. (Date is conjecture.) 1935 * Archaeologist Adrian Eldrich discovers the lost Temple of Sirrion and awakens Malador the Mystic. Imbued with reawakened memories of Atlantis by the Secret Circle, Eldrich becomes Earth's newest Master Mage. * Wilhelm Kantor becomes an initiate of the Thule Society and begins to study black magic. * Asano Ranaga find the long-lost Three Flames Katana, and begins rising in Imperial Japan as the Crimson Katana. (FC2e p 191) 1936 * Wilhelm Kantor rises to a position of authority within the Thule Society, showing aptitue for both the occult and the elimination of his rivals. (GA p. 74) * The Green Dragon Society of occultists rises to greater power and influence in Imperial Japan. Some tentative contact established between them and the Thule Society. (GA p. 74) 1937 * Members of the Order of Light note a rising "dark tide" in the magical realms and the mystic currents of the world. The appearance of a new Master Mage is generally seen as a reaction to the sinister forces unleashed by the awakening of Malador and the rites of Nazi and Japanese occultists. (GA p. 74) 1938 * The Centurion first appears, preventing a robbery at the First National Bank by lifting the getaway off the ground with his bare hands, bullets bouncing harmlessly off him. * Midnight (Travis Hunter) prevents a robbery by bogus "Martians" during Orson Wells' broadcast of The War of the Worlds. * The Thule Society makes contact with the superhuman inhabitants of Ultima Thule, who erase the memories of the encounter after rejecting the notion of "Aryan superiority". However, one rogue Ultiman, Kal-Zed, chooses to initiate contact with the Nazis, posing as a "sport" superhuman. * Wilhelm Kantor visits the temple of Seti-Ab and discovers his true nature as an eternally reincarnating scion of evil. (AoF p. 66) * Amanda Phipps-Gordon is empowered with the magic of the ancient Druids and becomes Lady Celtic. (GA p. 88) * The parents of Sophie and Wolfgang Shaal are murdered during Kristallnacht, but they are rescued and become the Lightbearers, known as the White Rose and the White Thorn. (GA p. 90-91) 1939 * The Freedom Eagle (Michael O'Connor) first appears, thwarting attempts by spies to steal his flying harness. * Germany seizes the rest of Czechoslovakia, and the Thule Society begins its pogrom of systematically eliminating rival occultists and looting their resources. Many members of the Order of Light flee or go underground to escape the Nazi purge. (GA p. 74) * The first widely known non-American "mystery man" debuts when der Übermensch (Kal-Zed) appears in Germany. A number of other German, English and French supers appear. * Germany invades Poland and the Second World War begins. Hitler announces the formation of the Nazi Übersoldaten, "super-soldiers", led by Übermensch and possessed of superhuman powers. 1940 * The first Bowman (Fletcher Beaumont) appears, followed soon after Johnny Rocket (John Wade). Within a few months, the Bowman is joined by his partner, Arrow (Timothy Quinn). * Lantern Jack makes his first confirmed appearance in the modern era. * Following the fall of France, French heroes Guillotine and Le Reynard Rouge begin cooperating with the French Resistance. (GA p. 75) * A coup in Atlantis results in the death of the King and leaves crown prince Thallor in exile, leading a rag-tag band of loyal followers. Atlantis seeks to isolate itself from the surface world, although certain factions favor alliance with the Axis. (GA p. 75) * An albino ape being studied in a German laboratory is possessed by the time- (and continuum-)travelling spirit of Dr. Geistmann. (GA p. 107; "more than a year before" Dr. Tomorrow's arrival.) 1941 * A new Lady Liberty (Donna Mason) makes her first appearance in Washington D.C. * Nazi mastermind William Kantor's grants Nacht-Krieger his shadow powers and lures a group of European resistance heroes into a trap. While three -- Golemeth, Guillotine, & the Mehire -- are killed, the survivors form the Allies of Freedom. * A German U-boat torpedoes and sinks a European luxury liner. American lounge singer Lynn Sidon is among those lost and presumed dead. In fact, she is rescued by Prince Thallor of Atlantis, and given aquatic powers in fulfillment of an ancient Atlantean prophecy. * The first team of Freedom City's mystery men, the Freedom Brigade, forms to protect Lend-Lease shipments from Axis saboteurs. (WoF p. 65) * U.S. Army Sergeants Tony Gorman and Wallace Allan encounter a mysterious silver flying disk that grants both of them super-powers; they become known, respectively, as Sergeant Shrapnel and Allen Wrench. (GA p. 89) * William Warner, a student at St. Thomas Acquinas Academy, awakens the Vengeance Spirit and becomes its newest host. He is defeated by Adrian Eldrich and a witch named Lillian Vervain. (HH p. 100) * The Japanese attack Pearl Harbor. A new mystery man, dubbed the Envoy (Sarlyn of Utopia) makes his debut saving lives following the attack. (GA p. 81) * The Freedom Brigade depart on a revenge attack against Japan. They are never heard from again. (WoF p. 65) * Dr. Tomorrow arrives from the future (in fact, from a parallel timeline) with the prediction that the Axis will win the war if history as he knows it remains unchanged. * President Roosevelt announces the formation of the Liberty League. 1942 * The Patriot (Jack Simmons), product of a super-soldier program, first appears in Boston, later joining the Liberty League. * First appearance of the Siren (Lynn Sidon), along Freedom City's waterfront. * The Human Tank and Gunner (Hank and Tommy Griffin) appear in Port Regal, and soon fight overseas in Europe, joining the Allies of Freedom * Formation of the original Crime League in Freedom City, composed of costumed criminals threatened by the activities of the Liberty League. * The Manhattan Project begins. Both Dr. Alexander Atom and Allen-Wrench are involved, along with many of America's other finest minds. 1943 * The Human Tank and Lady Celtic are married. (GA p. 86) * The Nazis are pressed hard along the Western and African fronts. The Germans are forced to retreat after an ill-conceived plan to take Dakana and its stores of daka crystals. (GA p. 76) 1944 * In the Ardennes forest, Daedelus is humiliated and defeated by Taurus and Ms. Scarlet. This is the last time the immortal inventor will directly confront his nemesis. (FoF p. 20) * Wilhelm Kantor makes arrangements for his own escape as the Allies advance on Berlin. (GA p. 76) * Übermensch clashes with Centurion before abandoning the Nazis to their fate. (GA p. 76) 1945 * Nacht-Krieger kills many of the members of the Allies of Freedom. White Rose and White Thorn imprison him at the bottom of the ocean near Freedom City. Their powers are transferred to Langston Albright, who begins to fight crime as the Beacon. (FC2e p. 59) * Adrian Eldrich is able to cancel many of the spells of the Thule Society and Green Dragon Society, depowering or greatly weakening many Axis super-soldiers. (GA p. 76) * The "death" of Dr. Geistmann reveals to the time-travelling Nazi his own ability to possess other bodies in other time periods. He becomes known as Zeitgeist. (GA p. 76) * Hitler commits suicide. Dr. Tomorrow thwarts a last-minute atempt by Zeitgeist to possess Hitler's brain. Germany surrenders to the Allies. (GA p. 76) * Prince Thallor's forces win the civil war in Atlantis and seize the throne once again. The newly crowned King Thallor proposes to Siren, asking her to be his wife and queen. (GA p. 76) * In South America, Wilhelm Kantor attempts to transform Greta Goessler into a second Valkyrie, but she is drawn to Valhalla as a result. (AoF pp. 67-8) * The United States drops two atomic bombs on Japan, at Hiroshima and Nagasaki (killing Hinomaru member Kamikaze in the process). Japan surrenders, ending the Second World War. Daedelus decides that the time has come to act openly, and begins constructing his first suit of powered armor. (For Kamikaze's death, GA p. 103; for Daedelus' decision, FC2e p. 115) * Dr. Tomorrow returns to what he hopes will be a changed future, only to discover that he is from a parallel timeline. 1946 * The Crimson Katana murders the Human Tank and Gunner in occupied Japan. * Siren marries Prince Thallor, and leaves the surface world for her new home in Atlantis. 1947 * Several UFO sightings are reported as a result of a Grue/Lor skirmish in the solar system. A Gure scout ship crashes near Roswell, New Mexico. The wreckage and the bodies of the crew are taken into government custody. * The Scarlet Spectre (Virginia North) begins fighting crime in the Fens. (ToV) 1948 * Kantor's initial cloning experiments using Nazi and stolen Ultima technology begin to bear fruit. 1949 * The Crimson Katana dies in Nepal, under mysterious circumstances. (FC2e p. 191; statement that he died the same year as the murder of the Human Tank and Gunner is an obvious error, but I assume that he did die in this year.) 1950 * A group of Grue scouts begin infiltrating and spying on the United States government. * Freedom Eagle fights a humanoid alligator that he dubs the "Alien-Gator" in the South River Swamp. (GA p. 103) * The Patriot is active in Korea, forming a team dubbed "the Atomic Brigade". Unfortunately, most of the team is killed by the end of the year. (AoF p. 44) * Overshadow (Wilhelm Kantor) rapidly ages one of his clones to adulthood and sets him up as "the Killer Kaiser", as part of a scheme to fake his own death. (AoF p. 68) 1952 * The Killer Kaiser is killed in a dogfight over Dresden. (AoF p. 68) 1953 * A group of six super-criminals unite as Troublemakers, Inc. The apex of their crimes comes when they simultaneously rob every Studebaker dealership in the Freedom City area (MMA2 p. 35, 38) 1954 * Hepcat, beat poet and vigilante, begins operating in the Fens. * Heroes thwart a secret Grue invasion of Earth. 1955 * The Scarlet Spectre crashes a meeting of the Liberty League, and is asked to leave in a somewhat humiliating manner. (ToV) * The Silver Soldier, a former member of the Atomic Brigade, is called before HUAC and refuses to testify; the Patriot attempts to capture him before a tragedy can occur, but one happens anyway. The Silver Soldier is unmasked and sentenced to ten years at hard labor. (AoF p. 44) * The Scarlet Spectre testifies about the Liberty League's activities before HUAC; while she provides no useful testimony, her own career is ruined by the act. (ToV) * The HUAC hearings force the conscientious disbanding of the Freedom League. * The Freedom Eagle and the Bowman retire; Bowman's sidekick, Arrow, begins training to take up the role of Bowman. * After stopping King Cole and the Blackbirds, Midnight goes underground and is never seen again. 1956 * During the Suez Crisis, the United Nations peacekeeping forces are established; a provision is added for the creation of a task force to coordinate the hunt for supervillains whose activities cross international borders. (AoF p. 59) * The second Bowman (Timothy Quinn) debuts. (Conjecture.) 1958 * Jack Simmons receives permission to assemble a task force for special missions. (AoF p. 45) 1959 * The team of Troublemakers, Inc., commits its last crime; only the Bee-Keeper (Brian Nisbet) remains active as a supervillain in the years to come. * Andrea Atom is born. (FC2e p. 123) 1960 * Hades, the Greek God of the Underworld, invades Freedom City with an undead army. A number of heroes, old and new, band together to fend off the invasion. The heroes remain together to combat similar threats, founding the Freedom League. * Simmons' task force, the American Elite Governmental Investigation Service, is activated. (AoF p. 45) 1961 * Dr. Alexander Atom makes his home in Freedom City, purchasing the newly constructed Goodman Building and moving there with his wife Anne and daughter Andrea. They are soon joined by foster child Jack Wolf. * The Scarab (Alexander Rhodes) makes his debut, eventually joining the Freedom League. His presence prompts SHADOW to make itself known. (AoF p. 68) * AEGIS receives its first test, successfully defending against SHADOW's first "Operation Inundation". In the wake of the operation's failure, Dr. Jonathan Darke (former second-in-command of the Invisible Empire) leads a successful coup against Wilhelm Kantor, seizing control of SHADOW, but is subsequently killed by by AEGIS, who mistakenly believe him to be "Overshadow". (AoF p. 68) 1962 * The Leopard King attempts to conquer several newly independent African states, as well as Dakana. At the request of King M'Zale, the United Nations sends a peackeeping force to intervene in the conflict. (AoF p. 59) * Overshadow arranges the formation of a new Thule Society under the direction of the Crimson Mask. (AoF p. 79) 1963 * SHADOW attempts to seize power in the United States and Western Europe, using imposter robots to bring the U.S. and the Soviet Union to the brink of war. This plot is foiled by an alliance between Centurion and Bogatyr. (AoF p. 68) 1964 * AEGIS opens Blackstone Penitentiary off the coast of Freedom City, a prison specially designed to hold superhuman inmates, moving criminals from existing prisons. * Freedom City faces a British invasion when the Beatles visit the city. The Freedom League stops the musical mastermind Maestro from using the band to mind-control thousands of screaming fans. 1965 * Omega and the forces of the Terminus pierce the dimensional barriers and invade Freedom City. Omega and his army are driven back by the League and Dr. Atom. * Sea King (Theseus, the son of Siren and Prince Thallor of Atlantis) joins the Freedom League. 1966 * The Freedom Friends premieres, a cartoon very loosely based on the Freedom League's real adventures. Although campy and childish, the show is a hit. 1967 * Nacht-Krieger is freed from his prison by Overshadow, but is defeated by the Scarab, the Beacon and White Thorn, who passes away after the battle. Nacht-Krieger is once again imprisoned under the future site of Pyramid Plaza. (FC2e p. 217; White Thorn's role in the episode revealed GA p. 91 [Note that a previous iteration of events had White Thorn surviving; this is no longer true.]) 1968 * Kid Gargoyle (Jack Carlton) makes his debut in Hanover. (IA p. 105) 1969 * Earth takes its "giant leap for mankind" with the first lunar landing, which draws the attention of the inhabitants of Farside City. Selene, better known as Lady Lunar, seizes power over the Farsiders in a coup, executing most of the royal family. (Lady Lunar's coup revealed FC2e p. 204) * Freedom City mourns the death of Chester Brown, blues musician and also the gangbusting Bluesman. Mayor Herbert Huntington honors him with a statue in Liberty Park. * The United Nations' peacekeeping agency, then called Uniforce, battle against the Malfidians, allies of Lady Lunar, with the assistance of the Associates. (AoF p. 59) * Blackstar arrives on Earth, with Star Knight (A'Lan Koor) in pursuit. Star Knight joins the Freedom League. * A scouting party from the Grue Unity arrives on Earth. They attempt to weaken Earth's defenses by impersonating the Freedom League. Although the Grue are soon exposed and repelled, the deception shakes public confidence in the League. 1970 * Legal issues and "creative differences" with the Freedom League lead to the cancellation of The Freedom Friends. It remains a cult classic. 1971 * Fletcher Beaumont, Jr., partner of the second Bowman, retires as Arrow due to problems with alcohol abuse. Although the story never goes public, Bowman retires soon after. * Talos builds Keres as an assassination android; the infiltrator soon becomes his right-hand "man". (FoF, p. 9) * Feeling responsible for the death of fellow Freedom Leaguer Mary Minstrel, Daedelus begins to construct a trio of androids using her neural patterns. (V&V p. 7) * The first annual Chester Brown Blues Festival takes place in Liberty Park. 1972 * The Raven (Duncan Summers) confronts his archenemy Dr. Sin and suffers crippling injuries while destroying Sin's airship armada. He marries Dr. Sin's daughter by the end of the year and hangs up his cape and cowl. * Anne Atom succumbs to cancer despite her husband's best efforts to save her. * Lady Liberty's powers begin to fade and eventually disappear altogether. She continues to operate without them for a time, but then disappears herself. * The prototype for the procedure that will be called the DNAscent Process is developed by Dr. Conrad Dippel. (FC2e, p. 166) 1973 * Construction begins on Pyramid Plaza, the most ambitious construction project ever seen in Freedom City at that time. (FCA, p. 2) * Callie Summers, daughter of Duncan Summers and Jasmine Sin, is born a year to the day after the defeat of her grandfather. * The Chorale, Daedelus' android creations, make their debut (V&V p. 7) * Dracula, lord of the Vampires, stalks the streets of Freedom City. 1974 * Fletcher Beaumont Jr., now in recovery from alcoholism, adopts the identity of Bowman, with Ethan Keller as the new Arrow, each the third person to continue the legacy of the Daring Duo. * Elizabeth Munroe and Charles Parker (Agents Black and White of the United Kingdom's Brigade Six) are taken captive by the Labrynth and subjected to the DNAscent process. Munroe escapes, but is unable to rescue Parker. (IA p. 104; date based on information, FoF p. 23) 1975 * Daedelus leaves Earth on board his starship Icarus to explore the galaxy, accompanied by Pseudo. * The Black Avenger (Wilson Jeffers) quits the Freedom League, deciding he can do more good as a solo hero. * Psychic crimefighter Evening (Elizabeth Munroe) makes her debut in Freedom City. (IA p. 104) 1976 * Evening fights many battles with the Eye of Vengeance (Kid Gargoyle, cyborged and reprogrammed by the Labyrnth) eventually undoing his programming. They fall in love and team up. (IA p. 104) * Work is completed on Pyramid Plaza, and Alexander Rhodes cuts the ribbon to open the complex to the public. (FCA p. 2) * Andrea Atom begins attending classes at Hannover Institute of Technology. There she meets a mentalist calling himself Mentac, who debunks psychic research but posesses actual psychic powers. (FC2e p. 123) 1977 * Evening and the renamed Eye of Justice are dubbed the Eyes of Night by a newspaper columnist. (IA p. 104) * Four prostitutes in the Fens district are murdered. The killer, Jack-a-Knives, is generally believed to be a copycat imitating the 19th century killer of that name. The Eyes of Night track down the killer (or so they believe; and help banish the Murder Spirit back to Tartarus. Eldrich tells them that certain barriers warding Earth from other-dimensional threats seem to be weakening. (IA p. 89; uncertainty about their capture of the correct killer, V&V p. 6) * The Atom Family, including Jack Wolf and Mentac the Magnificent, explore other dimensions, outer space, and the deepest recesses of the Earth. Although they fend off alien invasions, rampaging dinosaurs and would-be conquerors while exploring lost worlds, fantastic ruins and the inner Earth, most of the Atom Family's adventures do not become widely known to the public. * Due to pressures in his professional and personal life, Bowman begins drinking again, leading to concern from his colleagues, particularly his ward and partner, Arrow (Ethan Keller). * The family of the second Crimson Katana (Toshiro Ranaga), and most of the members of his Katanarchist cult, are murdered in retribution for a failed misison. The only survivor of the Katana's family is his newborn youngest daughter, Kimiyo, who will be raised by her grandmother. (FC2e p. 191-2) * Star Knight leaves Earth to return to Citadel, taking the captured Blackstar for trial and imprisonment. Star Knight resigns from the Freedom League for the forseeable future. 1978 * The Daring Duo suffer a humiliating public defeat when Bowman goes into action drunk. He resigns from the Freedom League and retires in disgrace shortly thereafter. Arrow defeats the Shark Syndicate on his own, and continues to operate solo. * SHADOW stages a second "Operation Inundation" using a cloned army. The Scarab is able to use his psychic powers to unleash the clones' buried egos, resulting in each considering himself the "true leader" of SHADOW and turning their disciplined ranks into a chaotic rout. (AoF p. 45) 1979 * Lucius Cabot returns to Freedom City for the first time in about a century and relocates the firm of Cabot, Cunningham and Crowley from New York to Freedom City at the behest of his infernal patron. From the very beginning, Cabot has run-ins with Freedom's occult community, particularly Eldritch. (FC2e p 38; IA p 89) * Brainstorm and the Scarab sacrifice their lives to free the Freedom League from the mental domination of the Scions of Sobek, a cult of long-dead Egyptian sorcerer-priests awakened by the machinations of SHADOW. The Freedom League begins a series of reorganizations and changes following this tragedy. * The revelation that AEGIS' Freedom City Operations Chief Luke Bonham withheld two-thirds of his available forces from the battle against the Scions of Sobek causes a rift between the Freedom League and AEGIS. (AoF p. 45) * Debut of the original Fearsome, a loosely grouped quartet of villains -- Doc Abbatoir, Sir Razor, Ms. Malice and Silverback. (IA p 106) 1980 * Ethan Keller abandons the identity of Arrow and adopts the code-name Archer, beginning a one-man war on drug lords and organized crime in Freedom City. Unlike his predecessors, Archer uses lethal force against his opponents to strike fear into the hearts of criminals. * Citizens for Order, Decency and Ethics (CODE) is formed in Freedom City. The organization calls for greater regulation of costumed and masked heroes, citing dangers to impressionable children as well as to law and order in the City. (IA p. 89) * Mentac reveals his true origins as the last surviving member of the Royal Family of Farside City to his teammates. (FC2e p. 123) * Overshadow summons his son Albrecht from Asgard and attempts to steal his body; outraged, Albrecht names himself Ragnarok and declares war on SHADOW. (AoF p. 69) 1981 * Two young members of the Freedom League, Tectonic and Halogen, die stopping the rampage of the Katanarchists, led by the second Crimson Katana. Following their memorial service at Heroes Knoll, the Centurion disbands the Freedom League before any more lives can be lost. * The Freedom City Police Department makes Evening and the Eye of Justice honorary police officers and invests them as deputies of the Department. (IA p. 89) * AEGIS agent Harry Powers tracks down and overcomes the telepathic serial killer Gemini, earning him national fame and a fast-track promotion within the agency. (AoF p. 46) 1982 * The Atom Family confront Lady Lunar and end her despotic control of Farside City. Mentac refuses the throne and helps install a democratic government. (FC2e p. 123; "two years" before the wedding) 1983 * Doc Abbatoir and Countess Azure mastermind a prison break at Blackstone Penitentiary, but their plan goes awry and they are forced to take hostages after setting off a riot inside the prison. Botched handling by the Freedom City administration leaves the warden and forty guards dead by the end of the siege, along with almost a dozen inmates, including the instigators of the riot. A total breakdown is prevented only by quick action from rookie guard Joshua Drummer and Dr. Abby Wallace, one of the prison's security experts. (FC2e p. 75) * Blame for the Blackstone Riots falls on the city administration as well as absent heroes such as the former Freedom Leaguers, despite evidence that various distractions were arranged to keep heroes like the Centurion occupied while the prison break occurred. CODE, in particular, rails against the failures leading up to the incident, and the group's membership swells in its wake. (IA p. 90) 1984 * The wedding of Andrea Atom and Prince Mentac marks the end of the original Atom Family's adventuring careers. Jack Wolf leaves Freedom City to become a mercenary with the Soldiers of Fortune. * Overshadow makes contact with a drone of the Curator and attempts to interface to gain all the knowledge of the cosmos. Thanks to superhero intervention, the resulting data stream fries the mastermind's brain, putting him in a coma. The Penumbra takes the reins of SHADOW, and, under the guidance of Franklin Folkes, begins Operation Blackguard, a systematic program to ruin the reputations of costumed heroes. (AoF p. 69) * While battling alongside Eldrich against the demon Nhorox, the Eyes of Night are exiled to the Terminus. (IA 103-4) * Franklin Moore is elected mayor of Freedom City on a platform of "zero tolerance" for crime and vigilantism, which includes costumed vigilantes as well. The support of CODE and similar grassroots groups features strongly in the campaign. * The new mayor's first act in office is to outlaw costumed heroes. With the signing of the Moore Act, even stalwarts like the Centurion are forced to stop operating in Freedom City rather than defy the new law. Centurion begins operating out of his Sanctum and focuses his efforts globally rather than locally in Freedom. * The third incarnation of the Fearsome -- Silverback, Subject Nine and Verman -- begin to quietly dominate the West End underworld after ousting several other criminal gangs there. (IA p. 106) 1985 * Michael Graves, son of an influential member of the Freedom City mob, awakens the Vengeance Spirit, which possesses him. Gaining a measure of control over the Spirit, he becomes the vigilante Hellrider. (HH p. 100, IA p. 103; date is conjecture, it is only placed in the Moore era by the first source, but it cannot have happened much later than this.) * Castle Comics starts up in New York City and buys up the rights to the pulp and comic properties of the long-defunct Aurora Press and Aurora Publishing Group. Their collaborative of hot young artists turns out a number of hit titles, adopted by youth culture as "rebellious", given the turn in public opinion against superheroes. (reasons for their success, IA p. 90) * Maximus Atom, the first of the Atom Family siblings is born to Andrea Atom and Prince Mentac. * Trap Door (James Shore) is empowered by the DNAScent Process and escapes from Cardistanic Labs, beginning a career as a hidden and mysterious menace on both sides of the law. (FoF p. 34; "four years" before the origins of the other members of Larceny Inc.) * In defiance of the Moore Act, Archer forms FORCE Ops (Freelance Organization of Crime Enforcement Operatives) uniting a young and sometimes brutal cadre of heroes to fight Mayor Moore's political machine as well as more standard menaces and enemies. They are quickly branded as outlaws by the Freedom City Police Department. 1986 * Tesla Atom is born. The Atom Family begins splitting its time between Freedom City and Farside, allowing Mentac to advise the Farside Council while Dr. Atom and Andrea study Farsider technology. * The Eyes of Night return to a much changed Freedom City (which they initially take for an alternate reality). When Evening discovers that she is pregnant, the couple leaves the city to allow their child to be born in safety elsewhere. (IA p. 90) 1987 * Outlaw heroes expose Grant Conglomerates executive Kyle Harrison as the source for the new drug "meta". (IA p. 117-122; date pure guesswork, setting adventure twenty years before publication) * Captain Thunder makes his debut in the American midwest, fighting against Dr. Stratos for the first time. (FC2e p. 148; "fifteen years ago", from Freedom City's original 2002 setting.) 1988 * Victoria Atom is born. * Franklin Moore is elected to a second term, despite rumors and accusations of political corruption, misappropriation of funds, and nepotism within the administration. Once again, the support of CODE and similar citizen action groups is pivotal. * The Eyes of Night return to Freedom City and operate, in open defiance of the Moore Act, in the West End and Fens neighborhoods. (IA p. 90) 1989 * Dr. Sin returns to kidnap his grand-daughter Callie and make her his heir; her parents rescue her, but Jasmine Summers is killed in the attempt. Callie Summers becomes, first without her father's permission and later with it, the second Raven. (FC2e, p. 120; Callie was born in 1973, and this took place on her sixteenth birthday.) * After a few incredibly successful years, the bottom drops out of the comics market and Castle Comics nearly implodes. Publisher Harry Wiseman takes the company's helm and immediately plans to move its central publishing house and offices to Freedom City. (reasons behind the move, IA p. 91) * Trap Door rescues three other DNAscendants from Cardistanic -- Smash, Grab and Get-Away -- who join him in forming Larceny, Inc. (FoF p. 30-34) * Chase Atom, the youngest of the Atom siblings, is also the only one to be born on the Moon. (Chase's birthplace, IA p. 91) * After his father turns states evidence and accepts a jail sentence, the Vengeance Spirit stops possessing Mickey Graves. (IA p. 116) * Freedom City celebrates its bicentennial. * To end the SHADOW War, the Crimson Mask steals the Mirror of Souls from Eldrich's sanctum and uses it to restore Overshadow's shattered mind, allowing the arch villain to seize control of SHADOW once more. (AoF p. 70; dated IA 91) * Dominic Ashe becomes the leader of a terrorist circle he calls "the Overthrow of Western Civilizaton", soon shortened to Overthrow. (IA p. 77)1990 * Director Simmons suffers a heart attack that forces him to announce his impending retirement from AEGIS, succeeded by Harry Powers. Overshadow uses an artifact called the Tapestry of Fate to mind control AEGIS agents to kill Simmons. The former Patriot overcomes his old foe. After Overshadow, "revealed" to be Heinrich Kantor, falls to his death, it's widely believed that SHADOW is broken and defeated. (IA p. 46) * In the wake of Simmons' retirement and SHADOW's apparent defeat, public and administration support for AEGIS begins to wane. The cost of operating the agency is increasingly called into question, and AEGIS is in serious danger of being de-funded or incorporated into other federal agencies. (IA p. 91) 1991 * The POF-SWAT squad kills a super-powered teenaged gang member called Captain Blood (no relation to the ghostly pirate of the same name) after AEGIS captures him in a raid in Southside. POF-SWAT members claim the mutant teenager was killed during an escape attempt, but video footage surfaces showing the officers beat and then shot him while he was still in power-dampening manacles. Although placed on trial, the officers are acquitted due to irregularities in the chain of evidence. AEGIS and a few Freedom City heroes narrowly prevent a riot in Southside from growing out of control in the wake of the decision. (AoF p. 37) * Attempted coup by Marxist hardliners in Moscow thwarted in part due to the efforts of the People's Heroes. (IA p. 91) * A revitalized Overthrow, by this point a secret arm of SHADOW, makes its first attack, destroying a monument to the French heroes of the Second World War. (AoF p. 77) 1992 * Michael O'Connor's "No Moore" campaign wins him the Freedom City mayoral election by a landslide, particularly after FORCE Ops exposes some of Franklin Moore's ties with organized crime. The newly elected O'Connor devotes his efforts (and considerable personal fortue) toward rebuilding people's trust in theirleaders and in Freedom City. He also begins working to repeal the Moore Act. * With the downfall of Franklin Moore, most of his cronies are forced to leave town, including August Roman. Rafael Oliverti becomes the head of the Mob in Freedom City. (IA p. 95) 1993 * The forces of Omega invade Freedom City. The largest assembly of heroes ever seen unites to repel the interdimensional invaders. including many heroes not seen in Freedom City for years. Many are seriously injured, killed or lost in the ensuing battle. Centurion sacrifices himself to shatter Omega's support armor, forcing the dimensional tyrant to to retreat back into the Terminus. Freedom City and the world mourn the loss of their greatest hero. * With the exception of Archer, all members of Force Ops are apparently killed in the Terminus Invasion. * Dr. Metropolis makes his presence known in Freedom City, and lends his powers to the reconstruction effort, allowing it to occur at tremendous speed. * Jack Wolf returns to Freedom City. With Andrea Atom and Mentac missing and presumed dead following Omega's defeat, Dr. Atom, himself dying of cancer, arranges for Jack to become the legal guardian of his grandchildren. He then transfers his intellect into a holographic computer system of his own design. * The sacrifice of AEGIS director Luke Bonham (killed in action during the invasion) and the clear threat posed by the Terminus revitalizes support for AEGIS and helsp to heal rifts between the organization and the superhero community. (AoF p. 46) * Mayor O'Connor officially repeals the Moore Act, making costumed heroes legal in Freedom City once again. Many of the heroes who came to fight Omega choose to remain and help with the reconstruction. 1994 * A group of heroes re-establishes the Freedom League, and it quickly becomes the world's premier super-team * UNSAC, UNPEC and Uniforce are merged as UNISON, with Carlos Santiago as the agency's first director. (AoF p. 60) * Mayor O'Connor establishes Honor Day, the annual citywide holiday to commemorate the defeat of Omega and the sacrifice of the Centurion and other fallen heroes, with the dedication of the Sentry Statue in Riverside Park. 1995 * Malador the Mystic takes control of Dr. Metropolis and has him seal up five occupied buildings for ritual sacrifice on a massive scale. Eldritch, Lantern Jack and Siren defeat the enthralled hero and the evil sorcerer. Malador appears slain when Dr. Metropolis drops a bulding on him. * The Crimson Katana (Toshiro Ranaga) commits suicide in a sorcerous rite, transferring his spirit into his katana. (FC2e p. 192) 1996 * Mayor O'Connor wins re-election as mayor of Freedom City. * Freedom City's Superhuman Tactics and Regulations (STAR) squad is activated; their first major test is a conflict with Fear-Master. (AoF p. 37) * Rafael Oliverti is killed on the orders of "Big Al" Driogano, who takes over the Mob in Freedom City. (FC2e p. 78; "nine years ago" from the 2005 date of Freedom City Second Edition. Okay, so if it's the same number in both editions, that puts in 1993, but it means that Oliverti was only in charge for a year, which hardly seems appropriate.) * Malador, unsurprisingly not slain by something as straightforward as having a building dropped on him, returns to battle Eldrich. 1997 * Daedelus' protege, Dr. Doris Volk, joins AEGIS as the head of its Technologies Section, leading the development of the Super-MAX armor. (AoF p. 52) * Kimiyo Ranaga discovers that she is the heir to the legacy of the Crimson Katana; possessed by her father's malevolent spirit, she assumes the identity. (FC2e p. 192) 1998 * Bill "Bulldog" Maddicks becomes the second STAR squad leader; under his command, the squad faces off against Hades himself, holding the god of death at bay until the Freedom League arrives. (AoF p. 38) * The next generation of the Atom Family becomes well-known, when the four grandchildren of Professor Atom reveal their mutant super-powers. * Following the defeat of the Crimson Katana by Eldrich, Kimiyo Ranaga is temporarily freed from her father's possession, but continues to act as the Crimson Katana, trying to undo her family's heritage of evil. (FC2e p. 192) * The Collective first appears and attempts to create a new nest in downtown Freedom City. The Atom Family are able to break the creature down into its collective parts, but it will return again and again. (FoF p. 54; "six years old" as a collective, from FoF's 2003 date) * An attempt by Overthrow to blow up a globalization conference in Freedom City is foiled by a plucky novice superhero. (AoF p. 77) 1999 * UNISON Director Santiago is assassinated by agents of Overthrow. (AoF p. 60) * Despite worldwide fears of computer chaos, the Freedom League handily defeats the Millenium Bug and his Y2K Drones. 2000 * New UNISON Director Harry Smith is also assassinated by agents of Overthrow. (AoF p. 60) * Michael O'Connor Jr. wins re-election to a third term as Mayor of Freedom City. * Jack Simmons, the Patriot, passes away in a government hospital. His memories and personality are uploaded into an advanced android, allowing Simmons to continue working as a government agent behind the scenes. * The Millenium Bug, with some extradimensional help from the Terminus, wreaks havoc by freeing the inmates of Blackstone. While the bug and most others find defeat that night, it takes the world's heroes months to recapture all the escapees. 2001 * The Freebooter (Jared McGinnis) makes his debut as more than just an online alias. He soon joins forces with Shrapnelle (Nelle Dreassi, great-granddaughter of Sergeant Shrapnel of the Allies of Freedom) and the current Rogue Reynard at the WTO rally in Seattle. (FoF p. 70; note that as their existence is of questionable canonicity, so is this event.) * An alliance of supervillains destroys Freedom Hall and seriously wounds or disables most of the Freedom League. Daedalus defeats the villains apparently by himself, though unconfirmed rumors suggest he had aid from the mysterious Foreshadow. The League rebuilds Freedom Hall to its current splendor in less than a year. * Duncan Summers, the original Raven, re-opens Claremont Academy (closed after the Terminus Invasion) in Bayview. He begins teaching the next generation of super-powered youngsters about the deeds and sacrifices of those who came before them. Inevitably, some of them decide to put what's being taught to them into practice, and Summers has the nerve to be surprised by the first adventures of the Next Gen. 2002 * Jennifer Ellis is installed as the newest director of UNISON, and starts avoiding assassination attempts. (AoF p. 60) * The Centurion re-appears, claiming to have been trapped in the Terminus for years. He turns out to be an imposter created by Omega to infiltrate Earth's heroes. Chase Atom exposes the deception, and the false "Alpha Centurion" is defeated and trapped in the Zero Zone. 2003 * Omega attempts to destroy the omniverse with a series of cosmic bombs. Only last-minute intervention by a small band of heroes and the cosmic entity known as the Norn saves all creation from destruction in this "time of crisis". * Dr. Tomorrow, until recently held captive on the parallel world of Erde, returns to Freedom City, now active as a Guardian of Time. (FC2e p. 138; date is conjecture but would have occurred shortly after the Time of Crisis.) * The Green Man co-opts and uses Dr. Metropolis' power to turn Freedom City into a primeval rainforest. Freed by fellow heroes, Metropolis reclaims his power and imprisons the Green Man deep within the Earth. 2004 * The West African nation of Cote de Liberte attempts to get UNISON involved in controlling its civil war. UNISON avoids direct involvement, but manages to negotiate a ceasefire. (AoF p. 61) * Hivemind takes control of the Star Island Space Center, in an attempt to put a satellite in orbit that would amplify his powers enough to take over the world. * Toyboy attempts to use a pair of giant robots to take revenge on Lettam toys for stealing his ideas. *Glacier takes everyone in the Ashton Mall hostage, using a device called the cryogenesis to turn the hostages into 'ice zombies'. * The White Knight steals a rocket booster from Star Island Space Center, intending to use it to incinerate the Fens and other areas of Freedom City. As with all these villainous plots, he is stopped by heroes. * After a millenium imprisoned beneath the Baltic Sea, the Thunderer frees himself. A former hero possessed of power from the Norse gods, he is now seen as a villain for attacking Ptargis Shipping. (FoF p. 26) * With the escape of the rogue Blackstar, Mentor appoints police officer Maria Montoya as the new Star Knight of Earth's sector of space. * Fletcher Beaumont III, the fourth Bowman, graduates from Claremont Academy and joins the Freedom League. * Mayor O'Connor wins a fourth term in office. * The Grue Unity launches an invasion of Earth. The Freedom League and its allies -- including numerous reserve and inactive members -- manage to hold off the alien fleet. Chase Atom defeats the Gure Meta-Mind in psychic combat, with the aid of the Moonstone and Earth's gathered psychics and mystics. Star Knight officially joins the Freedom League following the invasion, and former member Pseudo rejoins at the same time. 2005 * The Freedom League builds a satellite headquarters dubbed "the Lighthouse" and greatly expands its ranks to act as guardians of the entire world. Freedom Hall becomes the team's local outpost in Freedom City. * Within a few months of his sixteenth birthday, Chase Atom is kidnapped and experimented on by Moon-Son. The rest of the Atoms rescue the teen, but at a horrible cost which will not become apparent for some time to come. (WoF p. 75) * After a young orphan is empowered by Mr. Infamy, a group of heroes are dispatched to save Christmas. 2006 * Professor Marko Worth, a hate monger, brings his message of hatred to Freedom City, and heroes are drafted to prevent the situation from spiraling out of control, which (true to form) it does anyway. * The Freedom League is captured replaced with android doubles created by the Foundry, who commit various crimes until the real Freedom League escape and defeat them. * Mr. Infamy empowers Virginia North (the former Scarlet Spectre) and nine other people as the G'Tach, manifestations of the ten plagues of Egypt, who wreak a Time of Vengeance on Freedom City. They are opposed by a group of heroes who, in the absence of the Freedom League, become the city's new heroes. (ToV) * While protecting City Counselor Ray Gagliardi from assassination attempts, a group of AEGIS agents discover that SHADOW is still very much active. (AoF p. 112-121) 2007 * Following the arrival of the Alterniteens, a group of timeline-travelling teenagers, Claremont Academy becomes a school openly dedicated to training super-powered youths. (HH p. 95) 2008 * Mayor O'Connor is re-elected yet again ... OR IS HE? (WoF p. 72)